TSPSC Syllabus of Paper VI: Telangana Movement & State Formation సెప్టెంబర్ 1, 2015Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, 29th State, AP Reorganisation Bill, Bhadrachalam, G.O 610, Hyderabad, Identity, JAC, KCR, Kothagudem, Koya, Mulki, Nizam, Polavaram, politics, Settler, Six Point Formula, Sonia, SRC, suicide, TDF, Telangana, Telangana Festivals, TRS, TSPSC, Warangal.
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PAPER-VI – TELANGANA MOVEMENT AND STATE FORMATION
I. The idea of Telangana (1948-1970)
1. Historical Background: Telangana as a distinctive cultural unit in Hyderabad Princely State, its geographical, cultural, socio, political and economic features- People of Telangana- castes, tribes, religion, arts, crafts, languages, dialects, fairs, festivals and important places in Telangana. Administration in Hyderabad Princely State and Administrative Reforms of Salar Jung and Origins of the issue of Mulkis-Non-Mulkis; Employment and Civil Services Rules under Mir Osman Ali Khan, VII Nizam’s Farman of 1919 and Definition of Mulki – Establishment of Nizam’s Subjects League known as the Mulki League 1935 and its Significance; Merger of Hyderabad State into Indian Union in 1948; Employment Policies under Military Rule and Vellodi,1948-52; Violation of Mulki-Rules and Its Implications.
2. Hyderabad State in Independent India– Formation of Popular Ministry under Burgula Ramakrishna Rao and 1952 Mulki-Agitation; Demand for Employment of Local people and City College Incident, Its importance. Justice Jagan Mohan Reddy Committee Report, 1953 – Initial debates and demand for Telangana State-Reasons for the Formation of States Reorganization Commission (SRC) under Fazal Ali in 1953-Main Provisions and Recommendations of SRC-Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s views on SRC and smaller states.
3. Formation of Andhra Pradesh, 1956: Gentlemen’s Agreement – its Provisions and Recommendations; Telangana Regional Committee, Composition, Functions and Performance – Violation of Safeguards, Migration from Coastal Andhra Region and its Consequences; Post-1970 Development Scenario in Telangana- Agriculture, Irrigation, Power, Education, Employment, Medical and Health etc.
4. Violation of Employment and Service Rules: Origins of Telangana Agitation– Protest in Kothagudem and other places, Fast unto Death by Ravindranath; 1969 Agitation for Separate Telangana. Role of Intellectuals, Students, Employees in Jai Telangana Movement.
5. Formation of Telangana Praja Samithi and Course of Movement – the Spread of Telangana Movement- Major Events, Leaders and Personalities- All Party Accord – Go 36 – Suppression of Telangana Movement and its Consequences-The Eight Point and Five-Point Formulas-Implications.
II. Mobilisational phase (1971 -1990)
1. Court Judgements on Mulki Rules- Jai Andhra Movement and its Consequences– Six Point Formula 1973, and its Provisions; Article 371-D, Presidential Order, 1975-Officers (Jayabharat Reddy) Committee Report- G.O. 610 (1985); its Provisions and Violations- Reaction and Representations of Telangana Employees (మరింత…)
Brief history of Telangana & Andhra Pradesh మార్చి 7, 2014Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, Andhra, Deccan, Godavari, Hyderabad, Kakatiya, Mulki, Nizam, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, Six Point Formula, SRC, Telangana, Warangal.
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A brief history of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh
Ratnakar Sadaysula, DNA, 4 March 2014
Ratnakar Sadaysula writes about the history of Andhra Pradesh, and how the foundations of the Telangana movement were laid
Honestly speaking, it was quite a tough task for me, to write about the formation of Telangana – and the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh – without being emotionally affected. It was, after all, a place I called home. Tirupati in Rayalaseema was where I was born, Visakhapatnam in Coastal Andhra was where I grew up, studied, and got married, and Hyderabad in Telangana is where I am settled now.
In a sense, I belonged to all three regions. I had relatives from Telangana, from Seema region and of course from Coastal Andhra. But then I never saw them as being from Telangana or Seema or Kosta; for me they were just my relatives, period. It was the same at engineering college. My classmates came from all parts of the state, but we never really saw ourselves as being from Telangana or Seema or Coastal Andhra. Yes, we used to often rib and joke about where we came from, but at end of the day, we were all basically Telugu people.
When the bifurcation finally happened, it was as if a part of me was lost somewhere, a sort of confused identity. Until then, I could tell people I was from Andhra Pradesh. But now, where exactly do I say I am from? Do I belong to Coastal Andhra since Vizag is my hometown? Do I belong to Telangana since I live in Hyderabad? Or am I from Rayalaseema, since I was born in Tirupati?
Of course, apart from the “are you from Seemandhra or Telangana?” question, people also asked me, “Why Telangana state, what was the need for it to be formed?”
It is not easy to cover the entire Telangana-Andhra issue in a single article, as it has multiple dimensions, social, political, economic and historical. So, this is an attempt to explain it to people outside Andhra Pradesh, who wonder what the fuss is all about.
A brief history
The name Telangana is believed to have been derived from the word Trilinga Desa, the ancient name for Andhra Pradesh, so called because it is believed that it was flanked by three ancient Shiva Temples at Srisailam, Kaleswaram and Draksharama. A more historical explanation is that during the reign of the Nizams, the region was called Telugu Angana (where Telugu was spoken) to differentiate it from the Marathi speaking areas of their kingdom. (మరింత…)
Major developments in recent Telangana history ఫిబ్రవరి 25, 2014Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, G.O 610, Godavari, Hyderabad, Identity, Jai Andhra, movement, Mulki, Nizam, Polavaram, Settler, SRC, Telangana, TRS, YSR.
Tags: 29th state, Seemandhra, Srikrishna Committee
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Major developments in history of Telangana
IANS, February 18,2014
HYDERABAD: With the Lok Sabha passing the bill for bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh on Tuesday, decks have been cleared for formation of Telangana as 29th state in India. Following are the major events in the history of Telangana since 1948:
1948: Indian Army annexes princely state of Hyderabad, which comprised different regions including Telangana.
1950: Telangana became Hyderabad State.
1952: First elections held in Hyderabad State.
Nov 1, 1956: Telangana merged with Andhra State, which was carved out of Madras State, to form Andhra Pradesh, a united state for Telugu-speaking people.
1969: ‘Jai Telangana’ movement for separate statehood to Telangana began. Over 300 people killed in police firing. (మరింత…)
Telangana should have come two years ago: GK Pillai అక్టోబర్ 19, 2013Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in Identity, Naxalite, politics, regionalism, SRC, Telangana.
Tags: small states
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Telangana should have come two years ago, says Former Union home secretary GK Pillai
Manan Kumar, Agency DNA, 19 October 2013
Former Union home secretary GK Pillai tells dna’s Manan Kumar in an exclusive interview that the Telangana decision was wrongly timed. It should have come one or two years ago, he said. Edited excerpts:
Is carving out a new state of Telangana a right decision? Will it create more problems?
If people in Telangana do not want to be part of Andhra, they have full right to demand a new state. If after 60 years, Andhra hasn’t been able to give them confidence… I do not see any reason why they cannot be given a state. But the timing of the decision is bad. It should have come one or two years ago.
The Centre too should have pushed for the first best option given by the Justice Sri Krishna Commission — to give Telangana a regional council. The government should have tried it out for two-three years. If that did not work they should have then gone for the full statehood option.
Which major problem do you foresee once Telangana is carved out?
Most of the problems like capital are highly exaggerated. I think the main problem would be water because water flows from Telangana to coastal regions, which has more fertile land. The real fear of Seemandhra region is what if Telangana constructs a dam. That is something that Telangana should not do but then there is inter-state water commission and recourse to law to take care of such issues.
There is a strong view that creation of Telangana will help the Maoists?
On the contrary, I think a delay in creating Telangana will help the Maoists and allow them to exploit pro-Telangana sentiments. (మరింత…)
Telangana tailspin – Inder Malhotra జూలై 14, 2011Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, agitation, Andhra, Congress, Economy, elections, heritage, Hyderabad, Identity, Mulki, politics, regionalism, Sonia, SRC, TDP, Telugu, TRS.
Tags: Andhra Pradesh, JVP, linguistic states, Nizam, Srikrishna
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Inder Malhotra, The Asian Age, Jul 13, 2011
Of all the wounds that the Congress-dominated United Progressive Alliance has inflicted on itself in its second tenure (UPA-II), arguably the worst is the dithering over the burning Telangana issue. The thundering silence of the top leadership of the government and the Congress Party amidst tempestuous turmoil on the ground speaks for itself.
The duration for which the festering sore has been left unattended is appalling.
To put the UPA-II’s nay the Congress’ acts of omission and commission in perspective, the problem’s history needs to be encapsulated. At the time of Independence, indeed until September 1948, Telegu-speaking Telangana was part of the multi-lingual princely state of Hyderabad, ruled by the Nizam who was hell-bent on making Hyderabad an independent entity, a design in which Pakistan was complicit. But his people, fed up with his autocratic rule and depredations of the notorious Razakars, would have nothing of this. A sideshow was the Communist Party of India’s revolt against both the Nizam and Independent India. It was also crushed. (మరింత…)
Second SRC not applicable to Telangana, Says DS మే 28, 2011Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in Andhra, Congress, Identity, Mulki, politics, regionalism, SRC, Telangana.
Tags: APCC, Chidambaram, D Srinivas, Purandeswari, UPA
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Second SRC not applicable to Telangana, Says DS
Express News Service, The New Indian Express May 26, 2011
HYDERABAD: APCC president D Srinivas has asserted that the second SRC would not be applicable to Telangana since the UPA government had made a statement in December 2009 only after thoroughly studying the issue. “How will the second SRC come into picture even after Union home minister P Chidambaram had made a statement on Telangana issue?” he argued. (మరింత…)
Guide to Telangana question : Two books సెప్టెంబర్ 13, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in 1969, Andhra, Art, BJP, cinema, Congress, CPI, CPI-M, Culture, Deccan, elections, Fazal Ali Commission, Godavari, heritage, Hyderabad, Identity, Kakatiya, MIM, Mulki, Nizam, Polavaram, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, Review, Settler, Six Point Formula, SRC, TDP, Telangana, Telugu, TRS, Uttara Andhra, YSR.
Tags: P V Narasimha Rao, short story
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The twin guide to Telangana
V. Anil Kumar
Financial Express, Sep 12, 2010
The Telangana issue has been in the news for some time, and the recent byelections have just brought the focus back on the matter. While writings on Telangana are multiplying, there is considerable need for understanding the basic aspects of the problem. This needs information, as well as the point of view of the people of the region. In addition, there is also the need to fill the gap on economic, socio-cultural and historical aspects of Telangana. The two books reviewed here attempt to provide such a backdrop against which all the contemporary political commentaries could be understood to some extent. (మరింత…)
Identity of Modern Telugus – Yamada Keiko ఆగస్ట్ 28, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in Andhra, Culture, Identity, regionalism, SRC, Telangana, Telugu.
Tags: enthnography, history, linguistic, Telingana, Telungu, Trilinga, Trilingana
Origin and Historical Evolution of the Identity of Modern Telugus
Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XLV No.34 August 21, 2010
The “linguistic principle” following the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was framed as a cultural bond and administrative facilitator for socio-economic prosperity. It has not only been challenged intermittently but also contested as a unifying concept. From the historical point of view, the emergence of the current separate Telangana movement of Andhra Pradesh is testimony to the failure or even death of regional historiography or history consciousness, out of which the Telugu people’s identity once sought to evolve. The historical understanding of a small group of Telugu intellectuals under colonialism finally developed into an imagined common historiography of the Telugus as Andhras. Giving the name “Andhra” to the Telugu region in the 20th century was arbitrary and was due to the intervention of a new historical consciousness emerging among Telugu intellectuals. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, describing the Telugu people as Andhras and the Telugu region as the Andhra region was not a simple matter of naming. It was an example of a particular historical interpretation that was rooted in colonialism and modernisation. The history of a separate Telangana movement, in a sense, follows a process to bid farewell to the colonial legacy of a modern intellectual tradition formed around regional language and history.
The significance of a common language as a major attribute defining a nation or an ethnic group has come under scrutiny in India. The “linguistic principle” following the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was framed as a cultural bond and administrative facilitator for socio-economic prosperity. It has been challenged intermittently and contested as a unifying concept.
Andhra Pradesh was formed by combining Telangana, the eastern part of the former Hyderabad princely state, with the Andhra state, after the Andhra movement to integrate Telugus into a single political unit. The former Andhra state, the first “linguistic state” of post-independence India, was carved out of the Madras Presidency in 1953, following an emotional upheaval triggered by the fast- unto- death of Potti Sriramulu. The violence following Sriramulu’s death was responsible for Jawaharlal Nehru’s reluctant adoption of the linguistic principle in the federal system, and for his consent to the formation of the first state for Telugu-speaking people of the region. Indeed, it is ironic that Andhra Pradesh, a larger state combining the regions of Telugu-speaking people from the Madras Presidency and the Hyderabad princely state is now facing a demand for a bifurcation and the creation of a sub-regional state – Telangana – irrespective of the language. (మరింత…)
Telangana – Small State Economics or Regional Identity ఆగస్ట్ 14, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in 1969, Andhra, Andhrapreneurship, Culture, Economy, heritage, Hyderabad, Identity, Mulki, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, SRC, Telangana, Telugu, Uttara Andhra.
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There is no evidence to show that small states grow at a faster pace
Surjit S Bhalla / Business Standard/ August 14, 2010
The UPA government decided to make Telangana a separate state, and then decided against it, and then decided to set up a committee to study it. Since those eventful days in early December, there has been heightened interest in a very old question — do small states, or small administrative units, actually perform better in terms of governance and/or economic growth? In other words, is there an economic basis for splitting the large state of Andhra Pradesh into two? Several commentators have felt that such a case actually exists, but the evidence presented by them has been mostly of an ad hoc nature, e.g. to support their claim, they mention the small state success stories of Delhi and Haryana; but the not-so-good small state economic stories of Jharkhand or Assam or Punjab or Goa are ignored.
What size of population constitutes a small state? According to the 2001 census, the median population size of a state in India was 21 million; as reference, Telangana had a population of 30 million in 2001. If constituted, Telangana would be the 13th largest state in India, with slightly less population than Kerala and slightly more than Jharkhand. Not exactly small, and neither is Jharkhand. (మరింత…)
Listening to Andhra Pradesh, seeking solution to Telangana question ఫిబ్రవరి 22, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in Andhra, Articles, BJP, Congress, corruption, CPI, CPI-M, Culture, Economy, elections, Fazal Ali Commission, Identity, JAC, MRPS, Parliament, politics, PRP, Rayalaseema, regionalism, SRC, TDP, Telangana, Urdu, Uttara Andhra.
Tags: satisfy all, Srikrishna
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Listening to Andhra Pradesh
Last call for a sane solution
Business Standard / New Delhi February 16, 2010
The terms of reference of the Justice BN Srikrishna Committee on Telangana may be wide enough to satisfy all, but so wide that they may satisfy none. In constituting the committee the Central government seems to have been guided by the principle that no one with any knowledge of the problems of the state should be involved in seeking a solution. It is an interesting, and perhaps even a laudable, principle. The committee members cannot be accused of being biased in favour or against the break-up of Andhra Pradesh. None of them is either for or against a separate Telangana. Their professional credentials are impeccable, even if some of them are not known to a wider national audience beyond their relevant disciplines. However, critics may wonder if 10 months are enough for a group comprising professionals with their normal duties at work to unravel a 50-year-old problem. The committee has been tasked to review the developments in the state since its formation and their impact on the progress and development of different regions of the state. Further, it has been asked to examine the impact of recent developments on different sections of people such as women, children, students, the minorities, Other Backward Classes, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Finally, after consulting all sections of people, including political leaders, on the aforesaid matters, the panel has to “elicit their views; to seek from the political parties and other organisations (including industry, trade, trade unions, farmers’ organisations, women’s organisations and students’ organisations) a range of solutions that would resolve the present difficult situation and promote the welfare of all sections of the people; to identify the optimal solutions for this purpose; and to recommend a plan of action and a road map.” (మరింత…)