TSPSC Syllabus of Paper VI: Telangana Movement & State Formation సెప్టెంబర్ 1, 2015Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, 29th State, AP Reorganisation Bill, Bhadrachalam, G.O 610, Hyderabad, Identity, JAC, KCR, Kothagudem, Koya, Mulki, Nizam, Polavaram, politics, Settler, Six Point Formula, Sonia, SRC, suicide, TDF, Telangana, Telangana Festivals, TRS, TSPSC, Warangal.
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PAPER-VI – TELANGANA MOVEMENT AND STATE FORMATION
I. The idea of Telangana (1948-1970)
1. Historical Background: Telangana as a distinctive cultural unit in Hyderabad Princely State, its geographical, cultural, socio, political and economic features- People of Telangana- castes, tribes, religion, arts, crafts, languages, dialects, fairs, festivals and important places in Telangana. Administration in Hyderabad Princely State and Administrative Reforms of Salar Jung and Origins of the issue of Mulkis-Non-Mulkis; Employment and Civil Services Rules under Mir Osman Ali Khan, VII Nizam’s Farman of 1919 and Definition of Mulki – Establishment of Nizam’s Subjects League known as the Mulki League 1935 and its Significance; Merger of Hyderabad State into Indian Union in 1948; Employment Policies under Military Rule and Vellodi,1948-52; Violation of Mulki-Rules and Its Implications.
2. Hyderabad State in Independent India– Formation of Popular Ministry under Burgula Ramakrishna Rao and 1952 Mulki-Agitation; Demand for Employment of Local people and City College Incident, Its importance. Justice Jagan Mohan Reddy Committee Report, 1953 – Initial debates and demand for Telangana State-Reasons for the Formation of States Reorganization Commission (SRC) under Fazal Ali in 1953-Main Provisions and Recommendations of SRC-Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s views on SRC and smaller states.
3. Formation of Andhra Pradesh, 1956: Gentlemen’s Agreement – its Provisions and Recommendations; Telangana Regional Committee, Composition, Functions and Performance – Violation of Safeguards, Migration from Coastal Andhra Region and its Consequences; Post-1970 Development Scenario in Telangana- Agriculture, Irrigation, Power, Education, Employment, Medical and Health etc.
4. Violation of Employment and Service Rules: Origins of Telangana Agitation– Protest in Kothagudem and other places, Fast unto Death by Ravindranath; 1969 Agitation for Separate Telangana. Role of Intellectuals, Students, Employees in Jai Telangana Movement.
5. Formation of Telangana Praja Samithi and Course of Movement – the Spread of Telangana Movement- Major Events, Leaders and Personalities- All Party Accord – Go 36 – Suppression of Telangana Movement and its Consequences-The Eight Point and Five-Point Formulas-Implications.
II. Mobilisational phase (1971 -1990)
1. Court Judgements on Mulki Rules- Jai Andhra Movement and its Consequences– Six Point Formula 1973, and its Provisions; Article 371-D, Presidential Order, 1975-Officers (Jayabharat Reddy) Committee Report- G.O. 610 (1985); its Provisions and Violations- Reaction and Representations of Telangana Employees (మరింత…)
Brief history of Telangana & Andhra Pradesh మార్చి 7, 2014Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, Andhra, Deccan, Godavari, Hyderabad, Kakatiya, Mulki, Nizam, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, Six Point Formula, SRC, Telangana, Warangal.
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A brief history of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh
Ratnakar Sadaysula, DNA, 4 March 2014
Ratnakar Sadaysula writes about the history of Andhra Pradesh, and how the foundations of the Telangana movement were laid
Honestly speaking, it was quite a tough task for me, to write about the formation of Telangana – and the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh – without being emotionally affected. It was, after all, a place I called home. Tirupati in Rayalaseema was where I was born, Visakhapatnam in Coastal Andhra was where I grew up, studied, and got married, and Hyderabad in Telangana is where I am settled now.
In a sense, I belonged to all three regions. I had relatives from Telangana, from Seema region and of course from Coastal Andhra. But then I never saw them as being from Telangana or Seema or Kosta; for me they were just my relatives, period. It was the same at engineering college. My classmates came from all parts of the state, but we never really saw ourselves as being from Telangana or Seema or Coastal Andhra. Yes, we used to often rib and joke about where we came from, but at end of the day, we were all basically Telugu people.
When the bifurcation finally happened, it was as if a part of me was lost somewhere, a sort of confused identity. Until then, I could tell people I was from Andhra Pradesh. But now, where exactly do I say I am from? Do I belong to Coastal Andhra since Vizag is my hometown? Do I belong to Telangana since I live in Hyderabad? Or am I from Rayalaseema, since I was born in Tirupati?
Of course, apart from the “are you from Seemandhra or Telangana?” question, people also asked me, “Why Telangana state, what was the need for it to be formed?”
It is not easy to cover the entire Telangana-Andhra issue in a single article, as it has multiple dimensions, social, political, economic and historical. So, this is an attempt to explain it to people outside Andhra Pradesh, who wonder what the fuss is all about.
A brief history
The name Telangana is believed to have been derived from the word Trilinga Desa, the ancient name for Andhra Pradesh, so called because it is believed that it was flanked by three ancient Shiva Temples at Srisailam, Kaleswaram and Draksharama. A more historical explanation is that during the reign of the Nizams, the region was called Telugu Angana (where Telugu was spoken) to differentiate it from the Marathi speaking areas of their kingdom. (మరింత…)
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THE ANDHRA PRADESH REORGANISATION ACT, 2014 dated 1 March 2014 says “ON AND FROM THE APPOINTED DAY, THERE SHALL BE FORMED A NEW STATE TO BE KNOWN AS THE STATE OF TELANGANA comprising the following territories of the existing State of Andhra Pradesh, namely:— Adilabad, Karimnagar, Medak, Nizamabad, Warangal, Rangareddi, Nalgonda, Mahbubnagar, Khammam (but excluding the revenue villages in the Mandals specified in G.O.Ms. No. 111 Irrigation & CAD (LA IV R&R-I) Department, dated the 27th June, 2005 and the revenue villages of Bhurgampadu, Seetharamanagaram and Kondreka in Bhurgampadu Mandal) and Hyderabad districts, and thereupon the said territories shall cease to form part of the existing State of Andhra Pradesh”.
An Eye-opener on Telangana : Madabhushi Sridhar ఏప్రిల్ 23, 2011Posted by M Bharath Bhushan in 1969, agitation, Art, cinema, Congress, Culture, Deccan, Economy, elections, Fazal Ali Commission, Hyderabad, Identity, Kakatiya, Karimnagar, movement, Mulki, Polavaram, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, Review, Settler, Six Point Formula, Sonia, TDP, Telangana, Telugu, TRS, universities, violence, YSR.
Tags: Allam Rajayya, Bharath Bhushan, Bhoomi, Dean McHenry Jr, Duncan Forrester, Gadi, Golla Ramavva, movement, N Venugopal, Naresh Kumar, PV Narasimha Rao, Radhika Rajamani, Reynolds Joshua, Srinivas SV, sub-regionalism
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An Eye-opener On Telangana
Power Politics, April 2011
The major defect that Telangana suffers from is lack of data and documentation to advocate against discrimination and disparities perpetuated by leaders coming from other regions. This problem is now being addressed effectively. Telangana: The State of Affairs, edited by M Bharath Bhushan and N Venugopal is a bold attempt to provide a framework to understand the rationale for the demand of Telangana
Telangana is victim of its own leaders who permitted others to exploit it. These leaders are culpable for two reasons : either they are guilty of not knowing the diversion of water, funds and other resources; or they knew it but allowed the injustice to continue without any resistance. For the sin of leaders, people are suffering. It can also be said other way round too : people should have been more conscious to question these leaders and not allowed the leaders to exploit them.
TELANGANA : THE STATE OF AFFAIRS, M Bharath Bhushan, N. Venugopal, AdEd Value Ventures, 2009, Rs 250, pp. 210
Andhra Pradesh unfortunately did not have a leader of state level nature so far. Almost all chief ministers conducted themselves as the leaders of their native district or region and none ruled like a leader of the entire state. Some of the leaders did not do anything for their district or region. People’s representatives who occupied crucial positions in New Delhi were more obedient to Prime Ministers and thus never cared for their state. Some MPs and bureaucrats from Coastal Andhra were over smart and diverted the resources from out of Telangana. This led to serious disparities among the region’s leading to the present state of hostilities and turbulence.
Another major defect that Telangana suffers from is lack of data and documentation to advocate against discrimination and disparities perpetuated by leaders coming from other regions. This problem is now being addressed effectively. Telangana: The State of Affairs, edited by M Bharath Bhushan and N Venugopal is a bold attempt to provide a a framework to understand the rationale for the demand of Telangana. (మరింత…)
Guide to Telangana question : Two books సెప్టెంబర్ 13, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in 1969, Andhra, Art, BJP, cinema, Congress, CPI, CPI-M, Culture, Deccan, elections, Fazal Ali Commission, Godavari, heritage, Hyderabad, Identity, Kakatiya, MIM, Mulki, Nizam, Polavaram, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, Review, Settler, Six Point Formula, SRC, TDP, Telangana, Telugu, TRS, Uttara Andhra, YSR.
Tags: P V Narasimha Rao, short story
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The twin guide to Telangana
V. Anil Kumar
Financial Express, Sep 12, 2010
The Telangana issue has been in the news for some time, and the recent byelections have just brought the focus back on the matter. While writings on Telangana are multiplying, there is considerable need for understanding the basic aspects of the problem. This needs information, as well as the point of view of the people of the region. In addition, there is also the need to fill the gap on economic, socio-cultural and historical aspects of Telangana. The two books reviewed here attempt to provide such a backdrop against which all the contemporary political commentaries could be understood to some extent. (మరింత…)
Separation Pangs – Telangana : Gita Ramaswamy జూన్ 5, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in 1969, Congress, CPI-M, Fazal Ali Commission, Hyderabad, Identity, MIM, Mulki, Naxalite, peace, politics, regionalism, Review, Settler, Six Point Formula, suicide, TDP, Telangana, TRS.
Tags: CH Hanumantha Rao, Gadi, M.Bharath Bhushan, N Venugopal
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Cheated on promises of equity for decades, Telangana’s right to statehood is validated by scholars and activists
Telangana today evokes images of gun-toting khaki-clad Naxalites and students immolating themselves—both conjuring horror and violence. In contrast, the Telangana movement for a separate state is both a peaceful movement and a movement for peace, an anomaly in a region marked by continuing violent struggles. By and large, the separatists have been peaceful, resorting to fasts, dharnas and processions. Telangana, which has seen decades of violence—from the Communist-led armed struggle of the forties to Naxalite violence the seventies onwards, and the horrific police repression of both—yearns for peace. The call for a separate Telangana is also a call for development on its own terms, to enable vertical contradictions within the area to be resolved within it.
The Telangana slogan is a six-decade-old one. In 1952, the Hyderabad Legislative Assembly voted to keep the Hyderabad state intact and separate. The States Reorganisation Commission, appointed by the Nehru government, also cautioned against forced unification in 1955. The gentlemen’s agreement in 1956 (between Telangana and Andhra leaders) stated that the utilisation of Telangana’s huge surpluses should be within the area of Telangana. This was not done. Data from 1966-67 shows 88.4 per cent of government canals were in the Andhra region, and only 1.4 per cent in Telangana. Subsequent developments confirmed the fears of the people of Telangana. Telangana has failed to get an equitable share of public investments, there is discrimination against its people both in public education and employment, and a clear denial of political power to leaders of this region. Two major rivers pass through Telangana—the Krishna and the Godavari; neither irrigates the area substantially. Instead, their waters go to the coastal Andhra districts of Krishna, Guntur, East and West Godavari. (మరింత…)
Change in Srikrishna Committee ToR Ruled Out : Duggal ఫిబ్రవరి 18, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in Andhra, Culture, Economy, Hyderabad, Identity, JAC, movement, Mulki, Parliament, Polavaram, politics, Rayalaseema, regionalism, Six Point Formula, SRC, Telangana, Urdu.
Tags: Duggal, separate Telangana, Srikrishna, TOR, United Andhra Pradesh
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Change in ToR ruled out
The Hindu, Feb 19, 2010
NEW DELHI: Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee’s Member-Secretary V.K. Duggal on Thursday made it clear that there was no question of change or modification in the committee’s terms of reference (ToR) announced by the Centre. The committee, among other things, has been asked to go into the demands for “separate Telangana” and “united Andhra Pradesh”.
Mr. Duggal, who was talking to The Hindu here, was reacting to a question that some Telangana leaders were hoping that ToR might be modified. He quipped: “the ToR have been decided at the highest level of the Central government and the Home Ministry with the approval of the Cabinet. Let me make it clear that there will be no question of change in ToR whatsoever.”
He said the committee’s notice inviting suggestions/views from the political parties, social organisations and other stakeholders would be released on February 20 in English, Telugu, Hindi and Urdu newspapers. The reply could be in the form of letters, petitions and memorandum.
The committee’s preliminary works had already started and it was contacting experts and researchers to get their views. In fact, some of those interested on the issue had already started contacting the committee seeking opportunities to air their opinions.
Mr. Duggal, who is a former Union Home Secretary, said he would visit Hyderabad on February 23 or 24 to hold discussions with the State Chief Secretary and DGP on the infrastructure, security, administrative and secretarial arrangements for the committee so that it could start its hearings in March there. (మరింత…)
Judicial Committee on Telangana జనవరి 23, 2010Posted by Telangana Utsav in agitation, Andhra, conflict resolution, Congress, Economy, Fazal Ali Commission, Identity, MIM, movement, Mulki, Parliament, politics, PRP, regionalism, Six Point Formula, Sonia, SRC, struggle, TDP, Telangana, TRS.
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Judicial committee to decide fate of Telangana
rediffNEWS January 23, 2010 10:50 IST
The Centre is likely to constitute a judicial commission headed by a retired Supreme Court judge to examine the demand for carving out Telangana as a separate state from Andhra Pradesh.
The decision to constitute the committee came after the Core Committee of the Congress gave its nod for the bifurcation of Telangana
The judicial commission is expected to be chaired by a retired Supreme Court judge, and it will have three experts as its members. The commission will be given a time-frame of eighteen months to submit its report. (మరింత…)
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The Hindu, Opinion/ Op-Ed January 16, 2010
Telangana: inevitable and desirable
G. Kishan Reddy
The Hindu has argued editorially that a just and sustainable solution to the Telangana issue can be found within an undivided Andhra Pradesh. Here is an Op-Ed article by a BJP legislator that presents a contra-argument.
In the winter of 1953, the Fazal Ali Commission was set up to reorganise the States of the Indian Republic. Its recommendation to go about creating States on linguistic lines, indirectly paved the way for the creation of Andhra Pradesh. Andhra was formed from the northern districts of the erstwhile Madras state and the southern districts of the erstwhile Hyderabad state — though the committee itself did not advocate such a merger and was against it.
Fifty-six winters later, the very concept of the creation of States based on linguistic lines has become passé. We need to look for fresh parameters for the creation of States, and that has to be based on holistic development on economic and social lines for better administration and management. This fact has been proven with the creation of Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar and Uttaranchal from Uttar Pradesh.
Two issues that seem to be at the centre of the contention between the two regions of Andhra Pradesh is the future of Hyderabad and the repercussions in terms of the sharing of river waters from the completed and planned irrigation projects after the division of the State. Any entity, political or otherwise, that is able to find pragmatic solutions to this conundrum would not only earn the respect of the people of the State but also help set a precedent in the matter of contentious State divisions in the future.
Economics of small States
The case for small States can be argued with two parameters of macroeconomic statistics from the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. The first parameter is the percentage increase in Gross Domestic Product for States between 1999-2000, when the smaller States were created, and 2007-2008. India’s overall GDP increased by 75 per cent during this time period. During the same period, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttaranchal recorded more than 100 per cent, 150 per cent and 180 per cent increase respectively. These rates were much above the rate at which national GDP increased. This clearly indicates that the recent creation of smaller States was a step in the right direction.
Experts have often argued that the creation of smaller States has been at the expense of the States they were created from. For all its lack of governance, Uttar Pradesh grew by more than 21 per cent of the national average during this time period. (మరింత…)
‘The people of Telangana are treated as second-rate citizens’
rediff.com December 31, 2009 16:00 IST
When Jawaharlal Nehru announced the formation of a united Andhra Pradesh, he commented, “an innocent girl called Telangana is being married to a naughty boy called Andhra. It is their choice to continue or to get separated.”
Today the people of Telangana say that the innocent girl can no longer stay married to the naughty boy. Several proponents of the movement say that it is high time their ‘state’ is given back to them.
Dr Srinivas Raj, one of the leaders of the Telangana movement, has prepared a ready reckoner on the issue. Raj along with several others has been distributing this booklet among the people of Telangana and convincing the people why this movement is important and how their lives would change once Telangana is created.
In this interview with rediff.com’s Vicky Nanjappa, Raj gives an interesting insight about the movement for a separate Telangana. He also goes into length about the backroom politics that is being played in trying to curb this movement.
Could you give us a brief history of the Telangana movement?
We talk of Jalianwala Bagh with such great interest. No one wants to even think of the massacre that took place in Telangana, when the Nizam was ruling us. The Hyderabad state was under the Nizam and Urdu was the official language at that time. Right from that time, the people of Telangana were being suppressed. The Nizam’s army butchered the people of Telangana who fought for their rights and there were at least 6 Jalianwala Bagh-like incidents at that point of time. The problem is that we continue to get suppressed even today and that is why we feel that a separate state is required.
You had a separate state, then what happened?
Between 1948 and 1956 Telangana was a separate state. Hyderabad had several industries including two airports. A lot of attention was focused on the Telangana region and this area had a lot of infrastructure. Time magazine had in 1937 featured V Usman Ali Khan as the wealthiest man in the world. This only speaks of the wealth that there was in this region.
Once Andhra and Rayalseema came out of the Madras presidency, the people of those regions thought that it would be best to merge Telangana with their regions. Our assembly building, the high court buildings were all from the Nizam’s period. In 1909, M Visveswaraya, the father of engineering, constructed an underground drainage system in Hyderabad, which is being used even today. 69 per cent of the Krishna river’s catchment area is in Telangana. The revenue that was being generated in the Telangana region was much more when compared to Andhra and Rayalseema.
The fact that Dr B R Ambedkar had said that Hyderabad should be made the second capital of India speaks volumes about the region. Moreover Hyderabad is a connecting point between north and south India. They wanted ready-made infrastructure which was in abundance in Telangana and hence they managed to pressurise the government of India to consider their decision. (మరింత…)